General Facts

In the kingdom era, Indonesia, formerly known as the Archipelago, became one of the most important trade areas in the world since the 7th century, when the Hindu and Buddhist kingdoms grew in the early century AD, followed by the entry of Islam through trade and marriage, and the entry of European and Asian countries such as the Netherlands, Portugal, Britain, and Japan, which sought to carry out colonialism in the Archipelago. After going through a long period of colonialism, the Indonesian people were able to get out of the shackles of it over other countries by successfully proclaiming the independence represented by the first President of the Republic of Indonesia Ir. Soekarno and his deputy Drs. Mohammad Hatta on August 17, 1945 in Jakarta.

Inhabited by more than 270 million people, Indonesia is the fourth most populous country in the world. The government of this country is run by the principles of the republic, with the House of Representatives (DPR), the Regional Representative Council (DPD) and the President directly elected. With a long history, Indonesia has experienced several relocations of the capital, from Yogyakarta DIY, Bukittinggi in West Sumatra, Bireun in Aceh, to finally DKI Jakarta, which has been constitutionally designated as the national capital since 1964.

Geographic Aspect

Dubbed as Archipelago, Indonesia's territory stretches from the west to the eastern horizon with a series of 17,504 islands in which around 6,000 islands remain uninhabited. Among thousands of islands in Indonesia, there are five major islands, including Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, and Irian Jaya, with Java as the most populous island (65%). Dominated by the ocean, Indonesia has an area of around 1.906 million sqm.

Not only rich in the number of islands, but Indonesia is also blessed with 400 volcanoes, and 130 of them are active. Not only above sea level, but some of Indonesia's volcanoes are also below sea level. The tremendous number of volcanoes is the result of Indonesia's position, which intersects with two series of active volcanoes (Ring of Fire).

Indonesia is divided into provincial areas, and the province is divided into districts and cities, each of which has provinces, regencies, and cities that have local government regulations. Recently, there are 34 provinces in Indonesia, each of which has its own regional government. However, there are at least five provinces that have special and/or exclusive status in Indonesia, including the Province of Aceh with the Government of Aceh, DKI Jakarta as the Special Capital Region of Jakarta, Papua and West Papua with Special Autonomy for Papua, and Yogyakarta DIY with Special Region Specialties Yogyakarta.

Culture and Customs

Indonesia's resource is not limited only from the geographical aspects, but also aspects of Indonesian culture. The diversity of Indonesian society results in authentic and special cultures, and customs. Culture is reflected in various aspects of people's lives in all regions of Indonesia. Each region features different cultural characteristics. The Indonesian culture is divided based on its type, such as traditional houses, dances, traditional ceremonies, scripts and languages, songs, music, performing arts, sculpture, traditional clothing, food and others.

In addition to Indonesian culture that are well known to the world community, such as angklung (music instruments), wayang (shadow puppet), keris (Javanese sword), Reog Ponorogo, and Balinese Kecak and Barong dance, Indonesia has other cultures that are no less interesting and unique, some of which are the Adu Betis Tradition in South Sulawesi, Dugderan in Semarang or also Barge Fuel in Riau. In addition, some Indonesian cultures are extreme, such as the Tawah Ritual in Central Kalimantan where the bones of the deceased are brought to a house called Sandung. There is also the tradition of cutting the fingers which is applied by the Dani people of Papua. This tradition aims to address the sadness of being left behind by family members. For Dani people, fingers have a deep meaning and are often symbolized as a form of harmony, unity, and strength in human beings or a family. However, this tradition has been abandoned by many Dani people.

The diversity of Indonesian society is inseparable from religion. The very heterogeneous Indonesian society is a factor in the diverse religions embraced by Indonesian society. Among religions in Indonesia, Islam is the largest religion in Indonesia with almost 88% of Indonesians declaring Muslims according to the 2000 census. This makes Indonesia the largest Muslim country in the world, even though it is not an Islamic country that applies Islamic law. After Islam, Indonesian people embraced Christianity (9%), Hinduism (2%), and Buddhism (1%).

Climate and Weather

Indonesia is right situated in the equator line with the coordinate location of 6 ° NL (North Latitude) - 11 ° S (South Latitude) and 95 ° East (East Longitude) - 141 ° East (East Longitude). These conditions make Indonesia a tropical country and region that receive sunshine all year long. Unlike countries with sub-tropical climates, Indonesia only has two seasons, namely the dry season and the rainy season. The dry season in Indonesia generally lasts from May to September, while the rainy season starts from October to April. However, the season period is uncertain and depends on meteorological conditions. In the dry season, temperatures range between 28-34°C during the day and 21-25°C at night. Whereas in the rainy season, temperatures range between 24-28°C during the day and 23-26°C at night. Since Indonesia is in the tropic region, the humidity is quite high, which is around 60-90%.

Language and Communication

Indonesia has 718 regional languages and the Indonesian language. Although it can be understood and spoken by more than 90% of Indonesians, Indonesian is not the mother tongue of some speakers. Most Indonesians use one of the 718 regional languages as a mother tongue. Based on the number of speakers, the most widely used languages in Indonesia include Javanese, Indonesian, Sundanese, Madurese, Batak, Minangkabau, Bugis, Aceh, Balinese Malay, Banjar, and Poso-Pamona.

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